A day to mark the begning of democracy



Elections remind us not only of our rights but also our responsibilities and duties as a citizen 


An election is a formal group decision-making process, by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.

The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies, is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where the elections were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition, also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot.

Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections (especially with a view to predicting future results).

To elect means "to choose or make a decision", and so sometimes other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections, especially in the United States.

Recalling this day as the first voting day for Indian general elections Newscrust clears some basic concepts of elections and voting for you. 

The Indian general election of 1951–52, elected the first Lok Sabha since India became independent on August 1947. Until this point, the Indian Constituent Assembly had served as an interim legislature.The Indian National Congress (INC) won a landslide victory, winning 364 of the 489 seats and 45% of the total votes polled. This was over four times as many votes as the second-largest party. Jawaharlal Nehru became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the country. In the first Lok Sabha polls held in 1951, India had around 173 million voters, out of an overall population of about 360 million. Voter turnout was 45.7%.


India has had 16 general elections to the Lok Sabha so far. The number of eligible voters went up from 17.3 crore in 1951 to 83.40 crore in 2014. While only 53 political parties contested the election in 1951, 465 political parties contested in 2014.



Parties
Before Independent India went to the polls, two former cabinet colleagues of Nehru established separate political parties to challenge the INC's supremacy. While Shyama Prasad Mookerjee went on to found the Jana Sangh in October 1951, First Law Minister Dr. B. R. Ambedkar revived the Scheduled Castes Federation (which was later named the Republican Party). Other parties which started coming to the forefront included the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Parishad, whose prime mover was Acharya Kripalani; the Socialist Party, which had Ram Manohar Lohia and Jayaprakash Narayan's leadership to boast of; and the Communist Party of India. However, these smaller parties were unable to make an electoral stand against the Indian National Congress.


Constituencies
The first general elections, which were conducted for 489 seats in 401 constituencies, represented 25 Indian states. At that time, there were 314 constituencies with one seat, 86 with two seats and one with three seats. The multi-seat constituencies were abolished in the 1960s. There were also 2 nominated Anglo-Indian members.





Notable losses
First Law Minister B. R. Ambedkar, was defeated in the Bombay (North Central) (reserved seat) constituency as Scheduled Castes Federation candidate by his little-known former assistant and Congress Candidate Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar, who polled 1,38,137 votes compared to Ambedkar's

1,23,576 votes ,156 Dr Ambedkar then entered the parliament as a Rajya Sabha member. He
contested by-poll from Bhandara in 1954 to try to enter Lok Sabha but again lost to Mr Borkar of Congress.Acharya Kripalani lost from Faizabad in UP as KMPP candidate, but his wife Sucheta Kripalani
defeated the Congress candidate Manmohini Sahgal in Delhi.

Government formation
The speaker of the first Lok Sabha was Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar. The first Lok Sabha also witnessed 677 sittings (3,784 hours), the highest recorded count of the number of sitting hours. The Lok Sabha lasted its full term from 17 April 1919 until 31 April 2019.

Duration
While Indian Government's official websites and official documents assign the year 1951 to these polls, it is a misrepresentation because all territories except Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir voted in February–March 1952; no polls were held for Lok Sabha seats in Kashmir until 1967, and only Himachal Pradesh voted in 1951 for the first Lok Sabha because weather tends to be inclement in February and March, heavy snow impending free movement. The rest of the India voted only in February–March 1952 for the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections. Polling was held between 25 October 1951 and 27 March 1952. The very first votes of the election were cast in the tehsil (district) of Chini in Himachal Pradesh.The part results of the first general elections of India were announced on February 10, 1952, 64 years ago. The day is also celebrated as India's first democratic leap as these were the first general elections in India. Indian National Congress (INC) had won the elections with 364 seats out of 489 seats.






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